Intro to linux

· A collection of random bullsh*t..


Khuh hawn na: #


Linux hi open-source operating system lian ber anih loh pawhin a lian ber dawttu tal ani hial ang. Khawvela internet server awm zawng zawng 90% hi Linux server an ni a, mimal hman atan chuan lar viau lovin lang amh se server lamah chuan chuti khawpa lian leh lar chu ani. Open-source awmzia chu - a operating system an program dan leh a code zawng zawng hi mi tin hmuh theih tura pho chhuah ani a, hman emaw install man a awm lova, a thlawn liau liau ani. Free license nei ani a, tupawhin an copy in, an duh duh danin an ti danglam thei tihna a ni. Free License pawh hi chi hrang hrang a awm ve a, tuna a lar zual deuh te chu Apache License, General Public License (GPL) leh MIT License te hi an ni. Computer leh Programming lam tui mi te tan chuan Linux hi operating system tangkai tak ani. A free avang leh kan duh duh dana a program code kan tih danglam theih bik avang hian a elpui dang Microsoft Windows te leh Apple MacOS te aiin Programmer tamtak chuan an duh zawk thin reng ani.


Part 1: Linux chu enge? Windows nen enge a danglam na? #


Linux chu kan sawi tawh ang khan open-source kernel a ni a. Kernel hna thawh ber chu kan computer software leh hardware inbiak pawh na atana thawk palai ani mai ang chu. A hardware chu kan duh duh ani theia, Laptop emaw, Personal Computer (PC) pangai emaw pawh a ni thei. Linux operating system hi a load a zang em em a, computer/laptop hlui tawh tak tak ah te pawh an install fo thin (Windows a zawh tawh thin loh vangin). Linux tih ringawt hian a kernel chauh a sawina a ni a, a operating system chu duh aia tam thlan tur a awm a, kha lam chu nakinah kan la sawi chhunzawm ang. Chumi operating system hrang hrang te chu distro emaw distribution an ti mai thin. Linux hi open-source ani tih kan sawi tawh ang khan an thupui chu "Mi tin tan Chanchin Tha" tih ang deuh khan mi tin tan a thlawn a hman theih leh an duh dan anga siam danglam theih tura duan a ni a. A hmangtu mipui (Community) hian an enkawl ani deuh ber mai. Entir nan: Tu emawni khan a computer hman lai ah khan an program dan diklo (bug) eng emaw lo hmu ta se, a va report theia, anih loh pawn aman a siam (fix) theih chuan request a va siam anga a fix dan tur ava hmuh anga, a enkawltu dang ten a tha leh dik nia an hriat chuan kha pa siamthat (fix) dan tur alo suggest kha an pawn (approve) mai anga. Chu pa zarah chuan mitin khan khatiang a buaina kha kan tawh ve hma in siamthat in alo awm tawh dawn tih na ani. Open-source anih avang hian virus leh malware tih vel lakah a him lo zawk turah i ngai em? Lo chhiar zel rawh aw.. Open-source anih vang hian virus tih vel lakah hian a him zawk asin. A chhan chu maw: A source code (program) zawng zawng engkim tupawn an hmu tlang thei veka, chu vang chuan a code ah khan a him tawk lo emaw rinhlelhawm deuh a awm anih chuan tu emaw tal chuan an rawn chhui chhuak vat anga, fix vat ani zawk dawn ani. Closed-source operating systems: Windows tih vel te ai chuan ala him tho tho zawk tihna a nih chu. Windows te chu a program code pawh tuman kan hmu thei lova (Microsoft Engineer kan ni te anih ngawt loh chuan), chuvangin eng emaw code rinhlelhawm deuh pawh lo awm ta se a engineer ten an chhui chhuah loh chuan engmah kan hmu/hre ve dawn lova, fix ano ngai dawnlo tihna anih chu. Hetia mipui in tel khawm in an enkawl anih avang hian a changtlung em em a, kan hman na tur leh mamawh dan a zir in service leh applications vel pawh an update ve zela, a kimchang ve tawh hle a ni.


Part 2: Linux chu install ve duh ta ila engtin nge? #


Ngatinge Linux chu ka hman ang? #


Linux hman nawm em em nachhan pakhat chu kan distribution duh duh kan thlang thei hi ani. Windows nen bawk han khaikhin leh thin ila, Windows chu chi khat chiah a awma, version hrang hrang a awm ani maia. Linux erawh chu distribution hrang hrang hi mi hrang hrang in an siama, i hman duh dan leh hman nuam i tih dan a zirin i distribution (distro) duh duh i install tawh mai dawn ani. Linux la install ngai miah lo i nih chuan Ubuntu 22.04 leh PopOS 22.04 te hi ka kawh hmuh hmsa ber ang che u. A awlsam a, hmang tantir tan chuan mamawh tlangpui chu a awm bawk. Khimi pahnih khi chu a common zualpui leh hmang thar te tana hman awlsam anih avanga rawn chhawp chhuak mai mai ka ni a, distro dang 100 chuang thlan tur a awma, kha chu mimal a lo in en kual chi ani a duh khirh deuh tan.


Install ve chhin dawn ila - #


A install dan hi a har tehchiam lova, Windows i load tha thiam anih chuan i thiam sa ani nghal mai. I distribution (distro) duh ber kha i Google tawp anga, a .iso file i download ang. Ubuntu lo install duh ta la, Ubuntu 22.04 iso file kah i download ang. Tichuan bootable USB kan siam anga, Ubuntu iso file kha i copy lut anga operating system dang (Windows) te anga install ve kha ani tawh mai. Learn Linux TV Ubuntu install tutorial hi duh chuan guide atan a en theih bawk e.


Part 3: Linux File System awmdan: #


Linux ah chuan engkim hi file vek ani a, kan system settings zang zawng nen folder in chherchhuan hrang hrang ah file hran hran ah a awm vek a. Chumi file system in chherchhuan dan leh in kaihhnawih dan chu a operating system hmang thiam tur chuan kan hriatthiam a pawimawh ani. Kan file system bulthut ber chu / hi ani a, amah tawp hi engkim bul ani. / atang hian engkim a peng hranga, folder hrang hrang awmin heng te hian system files leh a hmangtu (user) files te a thliar hrang leh vek bawk ani. tldp.org ah hian Linux file system chungchang ka sawi aia fiah leh kimchang zawkin en theihin a awm bawk e.


Part4: Linux Command Line Interface (CLI): #


Command Line Interface (CLI) chu Windows a Command Prompt (cmd) ang kha a ni maia, Terminal te an tia Shell te an tia, hming hran ni mahse khami command chhut na window an sawina vek tho kha ani. CLI hi ngati nge ka hman ve kher a ngaih nachhan? CLI ham thian a ngaih nachhan chu, engkim hi mouse hmangin click thei vek mah la, a aia power nei zawkin CLI atang khan engkim i ti vek thei ani. File/Folder siam, delete, move, rename, etc. te, system file han edit te, a tam mai kan sawi vek seng lo. Command ho lam angreng tak, pawimawh tak tak si ho atangin han en tan ila:


Basic Terminal (CLI) Commands: #


ls : Hei hi 'list' tihna a ni maia, kan directory (folder) awmna a file leh folder awm zawng zawng list thlak na a ni. pwd : Hei ve thung hi chu 'print working directory' tihna a ni a, a thil tih czawn gchu tuna i awmna directory path kha a rawn print chhuak ang. (Directory tih hi folder tih nen a inang reng) cd : 'change directory' tihna a ni a, kan directory awmna thlak kual na mai ani. Hman dan: cd <directory_luh_duhna_hming> . Entir nan home directory ah lo awm ta la, i home directory ah khan ls hmangin enge awm i en a: Downloads, Desktop, Pictures, Music, Videos, etc. tih vel alo awm teuh ta, Downloads folder ah i lut duh anih chuan cd Downloads i ti anga Enter i hmet mai dawn ani. Folder hming kan ziah dan hi a pawimawh a, capital letter in a in tan anih chuan cd downloads i tih hian a dik thei dawn lo tihna a ni. Capital letter in a intan chuan capital letter kher kan hman ve a ngai. cat : He command hi chuan file chhunga thil awm kha i terminal ah khan a rawn ti lang dawn ani. Entir nan file note.txt tih ilo nei ta, chumi chhunga thil inziak chu i en duha: cat note.txt i ti anga, a chhunga thil inziak chu alo lang mai dawn ani. cp : Hei hi chu copy na command ania, file leh folder a copy theia, folder copy tur erawh chuan -r hi telh a ngai thung. Hman dan: cp file.txt <copy_duhna_hmun> OR cp -r folder <copy_duhna_hmun>. mv : Hei hi chu 'move' tihna a ni maia, Windows a cut ang kha ani mai. A hman dan hi Windows ami ne a in an loh na chu, mv command hi file leh folder rename nan a hman ngahl theiha, move pahin a rename nghal theia, i rename ringawt duha, i dahsawn duh lem lo anih chuan a awmna directory ah bawk khan move la animai. Hman dan: mv name.txt hming.txt hei hian a tih chu name.txt tih kha hming.txt tiin a rename a, a dah sawn na tur directory ka sawi loh avangin a awmna ngaiah (tuna ka directory awmna mek ah) hian a awm ang. mv name.txt ~/Desktop tih hi chuan a hming thlak lovin Desktopah a sawn ringawt ang. nv name.txt ~/Desktop/hmingthar.txt tih hi chuan a file kha Desktop a move pahin a hming hi hmingthar.txt tiin a thlak. rm : Hei chu remove tihna a ni leh maia, file leh folder romve/delete na command ber a ni. Recycle Bin ah a lut ve tawh lova, a sut let leh theih tawh loh. Fimkhur takin hmang ang che. Eng file nge anih i hriatloh chuan remove loh mai kha a fin thlak. Hman dan: rm file.txt ti hian i file duh kha i delete mai dawn ani. rm -r folder folder delete tur hi chuan -r hi telh a ngai. Folder chhunga thil awm zawng zawng a delete theih nan. vim/nano : Hei hi chu terminal chhung atanga kan file edit na tur text editor ani a. Vim hi chu ka rawn ziak tel ve nang a, hmang ngailo tan chuan hman a harsat em avang in nano zawk zel hi hman a tha ka ti mai. Hman dan: nano file.txt hei hian edit theihna alo hawng anga.. A chhunga thil awm kha i duh duh danin i siam danglam anga, chuan i tih zawhah Ctrl + o i hmet anga, a in save ang. Chuan Ctrl + x i hmet leh anga nano chu a in khar chiah ang. I thil thlak danglam kha a in save ngei em tih i check duh chuan a hmaa kan sawi cat command kha i hmang tangkai chiah ang: cat file.txt

Entirna kimchang zawkin:

Linux reng reng ah home folder kan tih chu, kan install tirh a username leh password min set tir khan /home folder ah hian kan username hming khan kan user home tur min siam sak a. Ka username kha john lo ni ta se, ka home folder chu /home/john alo ni dawn tihna a ni. Terminal ( emaw shell, CLI thil inang vek an ni kan tih tawh kha) hi a shorcut chu Ubuntu ah chuan Ctrl + Alt T ania, anih loh pawn menu drawer ah khan 'Terminal' tiin zawng rawh. A app chu i hawng anga, i home folder ah alo awm nghal ang. pwd tih command han chhu la Enter hmet anga, keimah ah chuan /home/johm tih alo in print ang (john tih kha username atana ka hman anih vangin). whoami tih command hian eng user hmangin nge kan in log-in tih a hriat theih bawk a. Chuan a hmaa lan command hriat tawh zawng zawng te kha a belhkhawm in hman kan zir dawn ani:

A hmasa berah chuan folder kan siam teuh phawt ang:

mkdir folder{1..9}

Hei hian folder pakua rualin a siam ang. An hming chu folder1, folder2, folder3 ... folder9 ani ang.

mkdir folder-pakhat folder-dang folder-dang-leh

Hei ve thung erawh hi chuan folder pathum, hming hran theuh nei a siam ve thung ang. folder-pakhat, folder-dang, folder-dang-leh tih te an ni. Folder hming ka ziah hian space aia dash - ka hman nachhan chu space hi terminal ah hian escape zel a ngaia, chuan capital ka hmang lo tlangpui bawk, a awmzia chu: Ka folder hming hi Folder Dang tih lo ni zawk ta se, khami folder a ka luh duh chuan cd Folder\ Dang ka tih a ngai dawn a, capital letter ka telh kher a ngai bawk dawn a. Chu ai chuan cd folder-dang han tih mai kha a awlsam zawk a ni.

Tikhan folder/directory kan home ah kan nei ta teuh a, ls command hmang khan engzat tak nge i neih i en thei ang. Chuan kan directory khawi emaw berah hian kan lut anga a chhungah file kan siam ang:

cd folder1 touch file file-dang file{1..4}

touch command hian a tih zawng chu file ruak a siam. Engmah a chhungah a awm lo. Tuna ka touch command khi chuan a vaiin file paruk a siam a, file, file1, file2, file3, file4, file-dang tih te an ni. Chuan ka siam zingah khian file1 ... file4 khi ka paih duh ta a:

rm file{1..4}

Khatia tih kha a ni leh mai. Kan file siam te khi kan edit duh anih chuan nano hmang khan kan edit ang.

nano file

rm command hmang pawh hian a rualin file tamtak a delete ve theih thoa, a ruala file leh folder te kan siam ang khan. mv leh cp command pawh hian a rualin file/folder tamtak a copy ve thei tho ani. Tichuan tunah hian kan folder awmna hre duh ta ila pwd command kha ka hmang leh mai anga, tichuan /home/john/folder1 tih alo in print ang. A chhan chu, home folder atang khan folder1 ah ka lut a, kala chhuak leh miah lo. cd tih command chhut a Enter hmeh tawp hian kan home folder ah min hruai let nghal thei bawk. Entir nan ka home ami folder2 chhungah hian folder chhawng lo awm teuh ta se, cd lut la ila:

cd ~/folder2/folder-chhung/folder-chhung-2/

Hetia ka tih hian folder2 chhunga folder-chhung ah ka lut a, chumi chhung lehchhawng ah chuan folder-chhung-2 tih a awma, chumi chhungah chuanka lut tihna a ni a. ~ka hman hi ka home tihna ani a, keimah ah bik hi chuan ~ hian a tlukpui chu /home/john tihna a ni. A chhan chu ka computer ah khan john tih user hmanga ka in sing in vang ania. A awmzia ah chuan cd /home/john tih leh cd ~ leh cd tih ringawt hi thil thu hmun vek tihna a nih chu. I user home directory ah a hruai lut vek che. Heng commands hman dan ka ran tar lan te hi Linux a kan omaand hman zin ber leh tangkai ber te an ni a. Khita command ka rawn ziah chhuah chin khi chu Directory a luh kual dan, copy, move, remove, rename, file edit dan tih vel chauh ka rawn sawi a. Khimi let tamtak khi commands kan mamawh dan leh hman duhna a zira in en belh tur chu a tam mai a, mahse a in hmelhriat tir nan chuan khimi te khi tawk phawt rawh se.


Ngati nge Linux hi i rawn fak chiam chiam? Hman leh tun ah enge danglam? #


A hma chuan: #


Linux hian hardware mil loh a nei lova, computer hmanlai ber leh tunlai ber ah pawh a install theih vek a ni. A rintlak em em a, Windows te anga laklawh taka update thut thut te, Blue Screen of Death ang te kha a awm ve ngai lova, chuvang tak chuan ani server atan pawh an hman nasat chhan. Server atan chuan a lo tha teh meuh mai. Mahse mimal hman atan nitin office hna thawh nan te a tlak tak tak em? Tlak tehreng mai. Linux hi hmanlai 90s vel hunlai atanga operating system lo awm tawh a ni a, miin an mimal computer a an install hreh thin chhan ber chu a hmangtu te tan hman a harsat thin lutuk vang ani. A hma chuan mouse te kha la awm ve hek lo. Keyboard vekin thil tih a ngaia. Terminal/Shell chiah kha a awma, computer a thil ho lam te tih duh pawn command chhut hrep kha a ngai zela. A hmang thang lo tan chuan command zawng zawng hriat ngaihna awm heklo, an operating system hman thiamloh hman ai chuan Windows install mai kha mi tamtak tan chuan thil tih awm zawk reng ani. Computer engineer emaw technician i nih loh chuan Linux hi khatih hunali kha chuan hman ngaihna a awmlo.


Tunah ve thung: #


Tunah he blog ka ziah lai (Oct 2023) hi chuan Linux pawhin hma a sawn nasa tawh khawp a, Ubuntu 23.10 te hial alo chhuak ta a. A hmangtu (user) te thusawi an ngaithla a, Graphical User Interface (GUI) nalh tak tak an rawn neia, a lan dan ringawt pawh analhsawt hle ani. A then te phei chu Windows aia nalh tak tak hi an tam ania. An lang nalh in hman an nuam ve em em tawha, hmanlai anga engkim ti tura Terminal a command chhut ngawr ngawr ngai ang kha a ni tawh lova, mouse in kan click zeuh zeuh tawh mai ani. Ni e, Linux ania, kan thil tih duh thenkhatah chuan Terminal a commmand la chhut nawk nawk a ngaih chang chu a tam teh meuh mai. Mahse terminal a command tlemte chhut a kan software duh kan han install thei te, kan apps install sa zawng zawng kan han update nghal vek thei te hi a awlsam lehling phian asin. Windows computer a update tura click teuh teuh ngai ai chuan. Chuan Terminal hi command hmanga khawih tur a nih avang ringawt hian huphurh tlat loh tur a ni a, thil eng emaw i tih tir duha, a command i hrelo anih chuan Google mai rawh. Mi pangngai tan command zawng zawng hriat vek thu a awm lo, kan in en chawp zel. Hna bera neih tu te pawhin a command an hriat kim theihloh te chu tu fa in nge maw hre kim thei bik ang le?? Command chhut chu hi mamawh na i nei khat tawh viau ang. Software install tur takngial pawn Linux distro tin hian package manager an nei veka, chumi package amanger te chuan app store te an neia, an app store a i duh va search a, "Install" tih va click keuh khani tawh mai. Linux khawvel hi chu a zau lutuka, Terminal commands ringawt pawh hi kan en peih chen chen a thui chhiar tur a awma, tunah chuan luh chilh vak rih lo ila. Hetiang operating system (Linux) te hi chu phone thar neih nag deuh hian ka tehkhin thin. I khawih tam poh leh a chungchang i hre chiang telh telh ang. Hman peih, khawih peih te hi a ngai ve. Photoshop te pawh mi in ngati nge a thiam em em kan tih chuan kha Photoshop Software kha a hmang tam tihna a ni mai. Thlalak ho te te edit atangin a inzir a, khawh tam na na na chuan thiambelh pawh hi kan lo nei nge nge zel.


Ka Linux experience: #


Ka Linux distro install hmasak ber chu Ubuntu 20.04 ani a, chuan a hnu ah 22.04 ah ka in upgrade a. Ubuntu hi Debian operating system bechhan a siam a ni. Ka install tirh ber ah chuan Windows nen ka dual boot a, chuan a hnu ah Windows chu a rih em avangin ka paih vek ta law law a, Linux chiah ka hmang ta a ni. Ubuntu pangngai ka hman nin deuh hnu chuan Kubuntu ah ka insawn a. Ubuntu operating system ani a, a desktop environment ah khan KDE Plasma a hman avangin a hming tir ah 'K' an telh a, "Kubuntu" an ti ta mai ani. Kubuntu chu reilote ah ka duhkhawp loh na ka hmu leh a, (a chhiat vang ni lovin, ka khirh ve hrim hrim vang in XD), bug eng eng emaw kha chu ka tawng ve a. Mahse khatiang bug kha chu Kubuntu ka kalsan chhan a ni lem lo. A aia hman nawm hmel zawk ka hmuh vang mai ania, tichuan PopOS ah ka insuan leh a, tun thlengin kala hmang ta reng a ni. Kei ngei pawh hian Linux hi kum hnih em pawh kala hmang tling lova, mahse thiam ve pangngai tawh tak chu ka ni. Ka computer game khelh ve thin ber hi Linux in a support sa avangin buaina ka nei lem lova, Windows game thenkhat a mil sa loh a awm chuan Wine Emulator vel hmanga a game chu run chhawn a ngai thung ani. PopOS pawh hi Ubuntu behchhana an siam tho anih avangin engmah buaina ka nei lova, a chhungrilah chuan Ubuntu chu ala ni renga, a hmel a lang danglam tih mai chauh ani. PopOS hi midang hmang tantir tan pawh hmang ve tura ka duh chhan pakhat chu NVIDIA Graphics driver a chhawm nghal vangin install chawp kual buai vel zawng zawgn kha a pumpelh theih dawn ani. Ka sawi tawh ang khan Windows atanga Linux a ka insuan na hi kum hnih pawh ala liam lo va, mahse distro pathum ka hmang hman tawh ania. Distro i duh duh kha i hmang kual thei a, mahse hriat tur erawh chu, distro thenkhat hi hman a awl deuha, a then a har deuha, a then community support a tha deuha. khatiang puihna i dawn theihna tur community support te kha alo thatloh hlauh phei chuan buaina i tawh palh chuan a buaithlak reuh phian zel ania. Debian based:- Debian 12 Bookworm, Ubuntu, PopOS tih vel hi a hmang tir tan chuan bul tan na atan hman a fin thlak ang.


Tlipna: #


He blog ka ziah dawn hian rough taka han ziah chhin pawh a awm lem lova, ka ngaihtuah chhuah fuh ang ang ka rawn phawrh deuh pawp pawp mai a ni a, in kal thelh deuh leh chianglo ruai te pawh a awm ang, minlo hriatthiam hram ka beisei. Hei blog hi chu introduction takzet ang kha anih avangin a enga mah hi chipchiar taka sawi theih a ni lem lo va, a tul leh that dan angin topic dang pawh a aia chipchiarzawka lo ziah chhuah leh ka tum dawn nia.